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Archive - January 2019

What is a Bird’s Beak?
A bird’s beak is a light, strong structure that extends from the skull. It has an upper and a lower section. The beak is covered with skin that produces keratin. Keratin is the same substance that makes up our hair and fingernails. The edges of the beak wear away as they are used. Keratin is produced to cover and protect the worn places.

What Does It Look Like? 
There are many types of bird beaks. Raptors (hawks, eagles, owls, vultures and their relatives) have a hooked beak for tearing meat

into chunks that can be swallowed. Herons have a spear-shaped beak for spearing or grasping slippery prey items like fishes, frogs and crayfish. Pelicans have a pouched beak for scooping fishes from the water. Some ducks and geese have a beak that can strain small food items from water. The tip of the American woodcock’s (Scolopax minor) beak can catch worms in the soil. Hummingbirds have a long, tubular beak to protect their long tongue as it gathers flower nectar. Birds like northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) and evening grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus) have a short, thick beak for cracking seeds open. Swallows and eastern whip-poor-wills (Antrostomus vociferus) fly with their mouth open to catch insects. Their beak supports the large, wide mouth. Shorebirds have a long, thin beak for probing in mud to find food. Woodpeckers use a chisel-shaped beak for drilling in wood and for searching for insects under bark. The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is one of several bird species whose beak shape is designed to take a variety of foods.

How Does the Beak Help a Bird?
A beak can be used for a variety of tasks. It can help the bird to defend its territory. It can be used to gather nesting materials and to build the nest. It preens the feathers. Preening is a process birds use to spread body oil on the feathers and to put feather components back in place. Some birds communicate by using their beak. The beak is used to gather or capture food. It assists in feeding the young birds. It can be used for scratching, courting and attacking, too.

What Can You Learn by Looking at a Bird’s Beak?
The shape of a beak can help you identify the bird. It can also help you determine what the bird eats.

Can a Beak Break?
Yes, a bird’s beak can break or crack. It is very painful for the bird if it happens and can cause the bird to die due to blood loss. Birds with a serious beak injury usually die. If a beak is cracked it will not grow together, but it will grow out. A beak that is completely removed will not grow back.

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